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Medical Assistance (MA), or Medicaid, is a federal/state insurance program that pays for health and treatment services for children and adults with disabilities. Some of these services include such things as health screenings, therapies, behavioral support services, transportation, and home healthcare. Medical Assistance was authorized on July 1, 1969, under the Social Security Act, Title XIX, Grants to States for Medical Assistance Programs. It is funded partly by the states...

Overview Of Medical Assistance For Persons With Disabilities Ages 3-21

Overview Of Medical Assistance For Persons With Disabilities Ages 3-21Medical Assistance (MA), or Medicaid, is a federal/state insurance program that pays for health and treatment services for children and adults with disabilities. Some of these services include such things as health screenings, therapies, behavioral support services, transportation, and home healthcare. Medical Assistance was authorized on July 1, 1969, under the Social Security Act, Title XIX, Grants to States for Medical Assistance Programs. It is funded partly by the states and partly by the federal government. The code of federal regulations, Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, is another important source of law that states the federal regulations pertaining to medical assistance. Medical Assistance is a free program and anyone can apply for Medical Assistance, however, not everyone with disabilities is eligible for Medical Assistance benefits. Each state establishes its own eligibility standards, benefits package, provider requirements, payment rates, and program administration under broad federal guidelines. This paper will provide an overview of Medical Assistance eligibility requirements, services, and the rights of children that are Medical Assistance eligible, ages 3-21.In order to meet the federal MA qualifications, the child with disabilities must meet the U.S. citizen/alien requirements for MA, fit into one of the categories that MA establishes, and meet income and resource requirements (Pennsylvania Health Law Project, 2003). In order to be MA eligible in Pennsylvania, one must be a resident of the state or a covered immigrant (Pennsylvania Health Law Project, 2003). There are several categories within MA that cover persons with disabilities and they often have different requirements (Pennsylvania Health Law Project, 2003). Children with disabilities that are eligible for Social Security Income (SSI) are automatically eligible for MA.Children with disabilities that are categorized as severely disabled and are not on SSI are also eligible for MA, regardless of their parents income and assets and if their own personal income is less than the poverty level (in 2003 was $749/month). The Department of Welfare calls this category the loophole category (Pennsylvania Health Law Project, 2003). In this category, if a childs income exceeds the poverty level, the child is still possibly eligible for CHIP (Childrens Health Insurance Program) or may be eligible for a Waiver program if the child requires a higher level of care (Pennsylvania Health Law Project, 2003). Most children in Pennsylvania with severe physical, mental, or behavioral disabilities qualify for MA services (Education Law Center, n.d.).Although a child with disabilities may be receiving special education services and have a particular diagnosis, it does not mean that the child meets the disability standards for Medical Assistance (Parents Involved Network of Pennsylvania, n.d.). The eligibility standards for special education are different from the MA disability standards. However, a childs Evaluation Report (ER) can be an excellent source that documents factors that are considered in the Medical Assistance disability standard (Parents Involved Network of Pennsylvania, n.d.).Children with disabilities that qualify for MA receive what is called an ACCESS card, which they can utilize for the purchase of a variety of prevention and treatment services. Anything that is medically necessary must be provided and children that are eligible are entitled to these services. Except through a Waiver program, MA does not cover any educational or rehabilitation services. MA services are free and there are no co-pays or additional charges. If a family has private medical insurance, this must be used first for the child with disabilities (Education Law Center, n.d).Examples of behavioral health services covered by MA include residential treatment facilities, behavioral services (wrap-around services, therapeutic support staff), medication for behavioral problems, and partial hospitalization programs (Education Law Center, n.d.). Examples of health services that are covered by MA include nursing care at home or at school, therapies, communication devices, medical equipment, and personal care services for children who need assistance with self-care skills, such as eating or dressing (Education Law Center, n.d.). MA must also provide eligible children with any services that are necessary to meet the childs physical or behavioral needs during the day, such as a nurse, a specialized hearing aid, or a therapeutic support staff person. Many of these services, however, are also considered related services based on IDEA regulations, and school districts are responsible for listing these services on the childs IEP even if the services are being covered by MA (Education Law Center, n.d.).MA recipients have certain rights in Pennsylvania. The following list of rights is an excerpt from the Pennsylvania Law Projects website:1. The right to receive and file an application on the same day that you ask for it.2. The right to bring someone with you to help you with the MA application.3. The right to have an application completed by a friend, relative, or official of a hospital, agency, etc. if you are ill or physically or mentally unable to do so.4. The right to translation services and translated written material.5. The right to receive coverage beginning with the 3rd month before the application, if you qualify for retroactive MA.6. The right to have DPW quickly issue a MA card if you have an immediate need for medical services.7. The right to receive medically necessary treatment and services without discrimination based on national origin, race, color, sex, or disability.8. The right to free choice of MA enrolled health care providers unless you are enrolled in the Health Choices Program.9. The right to be treated with dignity and respect.10. If you are homeless, the right to apply for MA even if you have no address.11. The right to have the MA programs explained to you and to receive help in determining the best possible coverage for which you qualify.12. The right to prior notice of, and a fair hearing to contest, any decision by the MA agency or an MA HMO to deny, terminate, or reduce benefits.(Pennsylvania Law Project, n.d.)All decisions regarding the rejection of MA or the reduction or termination of MA must be provided to recipients in writing and with instructions on how to appeal. Recipients have 30 days to file appeals, but if the appeal is filed within 10 days of the date of termination or reduction notice, MA benefits must continue until there is an outcome to the appeal (Parents Involved Network of Pennsylvania, n.d).Medical Assistance provides valuable health and treatment services to children with disabilities in order to help them to make meaningful progress and to achieve greater independence. As educators, it is important that we provide families with resources about Medical Assistance so that they can pursue the potential benefits and services that the program provides.

The Skinny on Anorexia

The Skinny on Anorexia

Because of mass medias rising campaign on beauty products and weight-loss products, people have been given the idea that they need to be appearance-conscious to get noticed. And with a lot of skinny celebrities and models in the media spotlight, it gives people a misconception that being skinny is synonymous to being beautiful. And because of this misconception that a lot of women become obsessed in losing weight, by any means necessary, be it naturally or not.An alarming emergence in eating disordersEating disorders have become increasingly prevalent in western countries because of a drastic change in the feminine body ideal towards thinness. An estimated five to ten percent of girls and women, an approximated five to ten million people, and a million boys and men suffer from eating disorders. Among these eating disorders are anorexia, bulimia, binge eating, and other dietary conditions. An estimated fifteen percent of young women adopt unhealthy eating habits and behaviours about food.Anorexia NervosaAnorexia is the second most common eating disorder. Anorexia and bulimia nervosa are common in terms of having an intense fear of becoming fat or even just to be perceived as fat. However anorexia differs in the sense that anorexic people starve themselves to lose weight, on the other hand people with bulimia eat to their hearts content and then purge by forcing themselves to vomit.Anorexia and other eating disorders usually start during early adolescence. People with anorexia nervosa often do a good job at hiding their eating disorder until the side effects have become prominent. And anorexic people also have a tendency to deny that something is wrong with them, that theyre already finished eating, or that theyre not hungry at the moment. They also keep insisting that they need to lose more weight.Anorexia and other eating disorders may have stemmed from a misunderstanding of a wide range of social influences that dictate for women to be skinny and imitate supermodel looks. Or sometimes it may be self-inflicted as a way of refusing to enter puberty. Some experts relate having low self-esteem, loneliness, a history of abuse, peer pressure, inferiority complex, and perfectionism as triggers of such conditions.Side effectsSide effects are mainly classified into psychological, social and physical. Physical side effects may come as a result from lack of nutrition from very little food intake, this may put serious strain on a lot of the bodys major organs. Anorexia may also cause psychological side effects, changing the way a person thinks, giving anorexics a distorted view on things.Physical side effects:Fatigue and loss of energyHypotension (low blood pressure)Dizziness due to low blood pressureFine hair growth on body (lanugo hair)Hair lossPins and needles (parathesia due to changes in the peripheral changes in the nervous system)Brittle nails and fragile bones due to low calciumIncreased vulnerability to osteoporosisAnaemia and pale skin due to low iron levelsEasy bruisingCrampsUlcers Susceptibility to cold due to loss of insulationEdema (tissue swelling from water) due to electrolyte imbalancesCessation of menstruation Strain on most of the bodies organsThyroid dysfunctionIrregularity in the secretion of growth hormonePotential kidney failureUrinary tract infectionsChronic indigestionPotential liver failureOsteoporosisPsychological side effects:Low self esteem and loss of confidenceFeelings of being ineffective and powerlessFear of losing controlMood swingsIrritabilityAnxiety and depressionLonelinessFeelings of being worthlessNow that you understand what anorexia is all about, it will be easier to look out for tell-tale signs of the disease. Of course the best way to prevent this condition is to educate your kids early of proper nutrition and showing them a healthy attitude towards food. Of course, the best way to educate is to lead by being an example to your children. After all, if your kids see you eating healthy, what are the chances that they would develop an unhealthy eating habit?

Bulimia

Bulimia

Bulimia is term used commonly for an eating disorder called Bulimia nervosa. It is a psychological condition in which a person engages in recurrent binge eating followed by intentionally doing one or more of the following in order to compensate for the intake of the food and prevent weight gain:* vomiting * inappropriate use of laxatives, enemas, diuretics or other medication * excessive exercising * fasting The following six criteria should be met for a person to be diagnosed with bulimia.1) The person feels incapable of controlling the urge to binge, even during the binge itself, and consumes a larger amount of food than a person would normally consume at one sitting. 2) The person purges him or herself of the recent intake, resorting to vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, exercising, etc. 3) The person engages in such behavior at least twice per week for three months. 4) The person is focused upon body image and desperate desire to appear thin. 5) The person does not meet the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa. Some anorectics may demonstrate bulimic behaviors in their illness: binge-eating and purging themselves of food on a regular or infrequent basis at certain times during the course of their disease. Alternatively, some individuals might switch from having anorexia to having bulimia. The mortality rate for anorectics who practice bulimic behaviors is twice that of anorectics who do not.) 6) The person is of normal weight or overweight. Bulimia is often less about food, and more to do with deep psychological issues and profound feelings of lack of control. Binge/purge episodes can be severe, sometimes involving rapid and out of control feeding that can stop when the sufferers are interrupted by another person or when their stomach hurts from over-extension. This cycle sometimes repeated several times a week or, in serious cases, several times a day. Sufferers often use the destructive eating pattern to gain control over their lives.This article is presented for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as medical advice. Please see the advice of qualified professional if you or someone you know suffers from bulimia.Permission is granted to reprint this article as long as no changes are made, and the entire resource box is included.

Masculine Skin Care For The Summer

Masculine Skin Care For The Summer

You agree - you'd rather die than be caught by your buddies stepping into a spa or salon. Growing up with a crowd that defines skin care as soap and water, you are afraid to admit that you want better skin. No matter how much you diss the so-called metrosexuals (brave souls!) for their skin regimens that rival ladies', you are a bit jealous. It doesn't help either that summer is upon us and your skin is blooming in zits. Okay, admit it - you want to be just like them but don't know where to start. Before shopping for "skin care" items, wearing a clown suit, and asking the salesperson for "that thingy with tiny beads, y'know?", here is a rundown of the things you ought to know.Recite it all together now: cleanse, tone, moisturize, nourish, and protect. Don't follow it with a karate chop; it's not a kung fu mantra. Rather, this is your new creed for improved skin. Michele Probst, an expert in masculine skin care, says that skin is oilier during summer because of the humidity. Heat caused by humidity makes facial oils, or sebum rise to the surface. These oils trap dirt into the pores which bacteria turn into zits or pimples. She adds that men's facial skin has larger pores with 20% more oil compared to women. This means that the old soap and water routine is not enough. She outlines the above mantra as an easy five-step method to clearer skin.Cleansing is easy with the number of products available in the groceries and drug stores today. Probst advises the use of products that are free of chemicals and harsh ingredients. Cleansers and soaps made of natural components are available in many variants but choose one that is specified for facial skin care. Keep deodorant soaps for your body and don't burden your face with deodorant residue. If you are not sure what brand or kind works best for you, consult a dermatologist. If you are afraid, buy trial packs or small sizes and try each for a week. Since you are buying all natural products, there are only minimal risks of irritation involved. Just make sure that you are not allergic to the cleanser's components.Exfoliation and toning do not involve wrenches or dumbbells, either. It means removing dead skin cells to smoothen skin's surface. Probst suggests the use of facial scrubs. These scrubs are just like cleansers but with soft and mild abrasives like beads incorporated in the formula. Effective scrubs for summer are Jojoba beads. These are mild enough for regular skin care but effective in removing dead cells. Since you spend most of your time outdoors in summer, your facial skin is in greater risk of dirt and pollutants. Nobody wants to be a summer hermit, so toners are your best friends to continue enjoying your active lifestyle. Probst explains that toning does not only remove dirt from your face; it also keeps skin supple and resilient. She suggests using astringents with glycolic acids twice a day to reduce the size of the pores and prevent ingrown hairs during shaving.Of course, skin care is not all about cleansing and keeping dirt of your face. Facial skin especially needs nourishment and protection. Nourishment comes in the form of moisturizers. Yes, your skin still needs light moisturizers even if it is oily. These moisturizers hydrate your skin to regulate oil production. Probst recommends applying moisturizers the areas under the eyes and the sides of the mouth. Doing so prevents the onset of something worse than zits - wrinkles. Eye gels and face serums with Vitamin E and chamomile nourish and refresh your skin. It is unwise to let all your skin care efforts go to waste. Probst warns that sun exposure can damage your skin. Wear hats and protect your face with sunscreens and sunblock creams.Good skin doesn't always come with genes. Proper skin care is necessary to achieve healthy skin. The effort you put in skin care is reflected in your mirror soon enough.

Cleaning Up Your Act: Constipation and Its Effects

The excretory system is a collection of organs whose main function is to red the body of all its waste. These wastes may include solid, liquid or gaseous wastes that when kept inside the body for too long may prove fatal. Liquid wastes or urine is expelled from the body via the kidney, the bladder and the tubes connected to these 2 organs. The process of eliminating liquid waste is called urinatio. Gaseous wastes are let out of the body by means of the mouth, nose, and the rectum. The process is called burping, when excess gas is released from the mouth; exhaling for when you let out carbon dioxide which is a by-product of respiration; and farting for release of toxic gases by way of the rectum. Solid and or semi-solid wastes are eliminated from the body through the anus in a process called defecation. Food passes the digestive system where nutrients and other nourishment is absorbed and processed. It then becomes feces stored in the rectum until time of excretion. Food is pushed along the large intestine towards the rectum by waves of muscle contraction called peristalsis. Fecal matter should be expelled from the body at least on a daily basis to ensure that no waste materials are kept inside the body. However there are circumstances that the body experiences difficulty removing solid wastes. CONSTIPATION It is a digestive tract ailment where a sufferer excretes hard feces. When constipated, the large intestine that pushes the food to the rectum may be moving slowly or not moving at all. People with constipation may find it extremely painful and/or difficult to defecate and may lead to fecal impaction in the rectum. Stool of a constipated person may be hard and dry. Constipation is one of the most common digestive complaints. It is more common in children and older people and affects more women than men. What causes constipation? The three characteristics of constipation has each their own causes. Hardening of the feces may be caused by: lImproper chewing or mastication of food. Chewing is the first step in digestion and in this stage, food is broken down to smaller bits to make food easier to process in the stomach, and necessary nutriets absorbed by the body. Bigger chunks of food are therefore more dificult to process and are moved around in the lInsufficient fiber in the diet. Dietary fibers are the indigestible part of plant foods that absorb water while passing through the colon, making defecation easier. If there is insufficient supply of fiber on your diet, the colon may absorbs all the water in the digested food as it passes through the large intestines.lDehydration or inadequate liquid intake. When water is in short supply in the body, the colon will act to restrict unnecessary water loss through the stools.lMedications. Diuretics that make the body expel water faster than normal contribute to the loss of water in the feces, making it hard and difficult to expel.Paralysis of the colon or slow peristaltic movement can be caused by:lMedical conditions. Certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism and hypokalemia may cause slow movement of the colon.lInjured anal sphincter. It is scientifically known as patulous anus. When the anal sphincter is injured, it is either caused by damage to the sphincter muscle itself or the nerve supply of the anal sphincter. This causes an abnormal loss of tone in the muscles surrounding the anus and all contracting actionslMedications. Medications such as loperamides, pain relievers and certain anti-depressants may cause paralysis or slow peristaltic movement as well.Dyschezia or difficulty defecating is usually results from often suppressing or ignoring the urge to defecate.What complications arise when constipation is remained untreated?Complications may arise if you continue to ignore constipation. These complications include:lHemorrhoids. These are caused by too much strain on the anal sphincter while trying to force bowel movement.lAnal fissures. These are tears in the skin around the anus brought about by over-stretching while trying to pass hard stool. This can also cause rectal bleeding.lRectal prolapse. This is when a small amount of intestinal lining is pushed out of the anal opening while straining for bowel movement.lFecal impaction. This develops when hard stool are compacted tightly in the intestine and rectum that normal peristaltic movement of the large intestine is insufficient to have it expelled.lBowel perforation. This is when the hardened fecal matter punctures through the intestinal wall and spills into the abdominal area. This causes severe infection as waste products of the body comes into direct contact to other organs housed by the abdominal cavity. The severe infection caused by this overflow of fecal matter may even prove fatal when not treated immediately.How is constipation treated?Constipation is an avoidable condition. Simple intervention that would entail a slight change of lifestyle can be done to help alleviate constipation and prevent it from re-occuring. Maintaining a well-balanced, high fiber diet, drinking plenty of water, regular exercise, and setting a regular bowel habit can help. Don't ever ignore the urge to defecate when your body tells you you need to, it is never healthy.In case that the natural approach doesn't help with your constipation problem, enemas and colonic irrigation help trigger peristaltic movement in the bowel. If these still don't work, laxatives are suggested to stimulate bowel movement.If laxatives and other measures fail, manual disimpaction is performed on the sufferer. This entails manually removing impacted feces from the rectum. This may be done with or without sedatives or anesthetics. In cases that the constipation reaches intestinal perforation, immediate surgery is required to remove spilled fecal matter from the abdominal cavity.In today's fast-paced lifestyle, it is easy to ignore what your bodies are telling you. People think they have more important things to do and therefore put off for later the need to expel bodily wastes be it urine, gas or feces. In the end it will just cause more inconvenience. To bad people learn their lessons a bit too late.

Water ionizers counters the effects of urbanization

This article is designed to show why the water we're drinking is bad for us, since it is highly unlikely that the urban water filters that are in place can filter out all of the little contaminants that are present in the water. Those contaminants are listed as part of the effects of urbanization on our water. These contaminants will acidify the water once they begin to decompose and therefore you will end up drinking acidic water which pushes your already high level of acidity even higher. All of these industrial pollutants, caused by the industrial traffic can be filtered out by water ionizers and leave you with pure water to cleanse your body with. Waterborne pathogens Waterborne pathogens can be disease-inducing protozoans, viruses or bacteria that are absorbed by a person when they drink unprocessed or insufficiently treated water. There are two main protozoans which are receiving media coverage lately and they are Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Consumption of those can result in grievous problems within the digestive system, which could possibly be life-threatening for those people who are either very young or very old or those with impaired immune systems. A large number of cities regularly examine urban streams to determine the level of certain bacteria within them, which have similar origins to the waterborne pathogens, although they are not detrimental. The sources are waste from humans or animals. The nontoxic bacteria therefore perform the role of indicators to alert the monitors of the likely occurrence of other bacteria that are unsafe. The water coming out of wastewater treatment plants which has been treated is also screened for these bacteria. Additionally, in some larger cities additional testing of drinking water has started. Heavy Metals: The deposits of various toxic metals have a tendency to accrue within the food chain and they can damage living organisms. Previously, the majority of toxic metal pollution originated from mining activities and individual sources, for instance wastewater-treatment plants and smoke-stack emissions. However, Federal and State regulations have resulted in the lowering of the level of toxic metal issuing from these sources. However metals have a predisposition to affix themselves to sediment and dirt, and therefore they are still ever-present within the banks and of beds many urban streams. Pesticides Pesticides are substances, either chemical or biological in nature, projected to manage pests, such as algae, insects, bacteria and weeds. Pesticides are used a great deal on arable land, but inside urban areas, it is mainly used on residential and commercial properties. However when storms hit, the rains runoff from both yards and roadsides and carry dangerous pesticides into local streams, where they may injure aquatic life and enter drinking-water supply intakes. The results show that pesticides are prevalent within streams and ground water sampled within agricultural and urban areas of the Nation. As anticipated, the substances that have been heavily utilized are the substances that are discovered most often. They occur in geographic and regular patterns that mostly match the allocation of land use and the associated use of pesticide. The rate of recurrence of pesticide contamination, however, is far greater than predicted. At the very least one pesticide was found in almost every sample of water and fish composed from streams and in about one-half of all wells sampled. In addition the individual substances were rarely found alone, the majority of the fish samples from streams and about half of all samples from wells with a measurable pesticide contained two and sometimes more pesticides. If you use " "water ionizer" s" you will receive the pure alkaline water that your body really needs. The ionizer will counteract all the impurities that have been put in the water during the course of urbanization. The ionizer as a tool to counteract the affect of urbanization on our water has become more and more essential as time has passed and the condition of our water has decreased. Water ionizers help us to counteract the effects of urbanization on us and especially on our water. These appliances will help us to cleanse and purify the bodies that have been badly affected by the process of urbanization, mostly due to the deterioration in the state of our water. The switch to ionized water from plain tap water is becoming increasingly necessary if we are to live healthy lives in this urban age.

Summary

Medical Assistance (MA), or Medicaid, is a federal/state insurance program that pays for health and treatment services for children and adults with disabilities. Some of these services include such things as health screenings, therapies, behavioral support services, transportation, and home healthcare. Medical Assistance was authorized on July 1, 1969, under the Social Security Act, Title XIX, Grants to States for Medical Assistance Programs. It is funded partly by the states...